Final /h/ may be fronted to a voiceless velar fricative [x]. It may be fronted even further after front vowels, then tending towards a voiceless palatal fricative [ç].
"/n/ is realized as a velar nasal [ŋ] following a back vowel and preceding a velar plosive, and as a palatal nasal [ɲ] following a front vowel and preceding a palatal plosive. "
All vowels except /a/ and /o/ get lowered in word-final position.
[a] is a low, back and unrounded vowel. Its fronted allophone [ạ] occurs with the palatal consonants /c/, and /l/ in loan words.
The non-high, front and unrounded vowel /e/ has three allophones. Going from the highest, i.e. mid, to the lowest, these are: the mid, front, closed vowel [e], its lowered counterpart [ε], an open-mid, front vowel, and [æ], a low front vowel. [e] sounds like a shorter form of the vowel sound in the English word late, [æ] resembles a shorter form of the vowel sound in bat, and [ε] is between the two, with a sound similar to the vowel in air in English.
[æ] occurs before /l/, /m/, /n/, /r/ in instances where the sequences ‘er’, ‘em’, ‘en’ and ‘el’ are not followed by a vowel, as in her ‘each, all’, gerdi ‘s/he stretched’, kent ‘town’, pergel ‘pair of compasses’.
[I] is a higher-than-mid, front, unrounded vowel which occurs in word-final position. Its pronunciation resembles the vowel sound in bit in English. [i], which occurs elsewhere, is a front, high, unrounded vowel, a shorter version of the vowel sound in beat in English.
[ı] is an unrounded, high, back vowel.
[o] is a mid, back, rounded vowel. Its palatalized counterpart [ọ] occurs adjacent to /l/ in loan words. /o/ occurs only in the initial syllable in words of Turkic origin, but may appear in any syllable in loan words.
[ö] is a mid, front, rounded vowel. In loan words /ö/ can occur in any syllable, but like /o/ it appears only in the first syllable in native words.
[u] is a rounded, high, back vowel which sounds like the vowel in the English word truth. [ụ] is its palatalized allophone, which occurs adjacent to the palatal consonants /c/, and /l/ in loan words. [ ] is more lowered than [u] and occurs in word-final position. It is pronounced in a similar way to the vowel in put in English.
[ü] is a rounded, high, front vowel. [Y] is more lowered than [ü] and occurs only in wordfinal position.
Göksel Aslı, and Celia Kerslake. Turkish: a Comprehensive Grammar. Routledge, 2010.